Oral Surgery or Mxillofacial surgery is a wide area that focuses not only on surgery and diagnosis of diseases but also on some defects and injuries that are associated with face, cheekbone, forehead, mouth, teeth, jaws.
Oral surgery is also performed to repair the birth defects such as cleft lips and palette, jaw realignment, facial reconstruction of the mouth and face, dental implants, removal of benign cysts and tumors, biopsy of tissue, removal of oral cancer. The most common form of oral surgery done by oral surgeon is wisdom tooth extraction, extraction of damaged teeth that cannot be repaired, apicoectomy, frenectomy, biopsy, jaw surgery, trauma surgery, bone grafting and dental implants.
Wisdom tooth extraction
Wisdom tooth is the last tooth to erupt. When the gums are healthy and the alignment of teeth are proper then there is no need to remove the wisdom teeth. But usually removal of wisdom tooth becomes a necessity when they are unable to erupt properly. Impacted wisdom teeth can cause problems like bacterial growth, causing infection resulting in pain, swelling and illness.
Tooth extraction surgery is done on impacted or cracked wisdom teeth or the other teeth that has damaged and become irreparable because of the decaying of teeth, root fracture or trauma or accidents. It is also required when milk teeth are still in place and are preventing the permanent teeth to erupt.
Dental implants have nowadays become very popular. In this procedure the missing tooth is replaced with artificial one or stability is provided for the existing denture. During dental implant a small titanium screw is used for replacing the portion of the root of the missing tooth. It can be placed on upper as well as lower jaw wherever required.
Sinus Lift Surgery
Sometimes the roots of the natural teeth extend up into the maxillary sinuses.When these upper teeth are removed, there is often just a thin wall of bone separating the maxillary sinus and the mouth. In such cases it is difficult to place a Dental Implant because Dental implants need bone to hold them in place.
There is a solution and it’s called a sinus graft or sinus lift graft. The dental implant surgeon enters the sinus from where the upper teeth used to be. The sinus membrane is then lifted upward and donor bone is inserted into the floor of the sinus. After healing, the bone becomes part of the patient’s jaw and dental implants can be inserted and stabilized in this new sinus bone.
Most dental bone grafting procedures are done to restore your bone to its previous form following tooth loss, gum disease or trauma. Bone grafting may also be used to maintain bone structure after tooth extraction.
Bone grafting is a safe and highly successful procedure that involves the “building up” or adding bone to the jaw by using your own natural bone from another location and/or by using donor, processed or synthetic bone materials. This additional bone provides support for Implants and other prosthesis.
Apicoectomy is also called root end surgery that is performed by an oral surgeon. Apicosectomy may be required if infection or inflation of tissues present within the roots continues even after the root canal treatment. In this procedure the oral surgeon removes the apex i.e. the root tip and further adopts the filling procedure to seal the roots. If the treatment is not done in time then in such case infection may spread and damage the other healthy teeth as well.
Frenectomy is an oral surgery that helps in the removal or relaxing of frenulum i.e. the small fold of muscle tissue that avoids the connected organs from moving far. This surgery is performed under the effect of local anesthesia. The surgeon uses laser or scalpel for removing frenum.